Pain can occur in any number of places in your mouth: teeth, gums, roots, the palate, tongue and jaw. The pain may be aggravated by chewing or by thermal foods and liquids which are cold or hot.
In most instances, toothaches are caused by a dental problem, such as a dental cavity, a cracked or fractured tooth, an exposed tooth root, or gum disease
Improper bite relationships and jaw disorders can also cause pain. Other sources of pain include sleep disorders, and headaches and neck aches.
Special splints can sometimes be applied to stabilize a bite. Bites can also be corrected with special orthodontic procedures, appliances and restoration techniques.
The following structures need to be examined carefully in order to be sure that the pain is of dental origin:
◦ buccal mucosa
◦ floor of the mouth
◦ hard palate
◦ teeth and periodontal tissues
◦ temporomandibular joints
◦ salivary glands
◦ lymph nodes.